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A Geological History of Meade County According to Claude Hibbard

By Janae Rempel - copyright Meade County Historical Society          

The first known collection of fossils from Meade County dates back to the late 1800's when Orestes St. John took fossils from the Big Springs Ranch.1 St. John was a geologist who participated in Hayden's survey in 1877 and for whom Mount Saint John in the Teton Range was named.2 The present location of St. John's specimens is unknown.3

Others also showed interest in the geological history of Meade County. F.W. Cragin, professor of natural history at Washburn University from 1882 to 1891,4 made the second collection in 1891.5 Additional work was done by Erasmus Haworth, professor of geology and mineralogy at the University of Kansas and the founder of the Kansas Geological Survey,6 and G.I. Adams. Work in the area then slowed for over 30 years, with only minor contributions until H.T.U. Smith in 1935.7 Smith was head of the geosciences department at the University of Massachusetts from 1956 to 1969.8 Then, in 1936, Claude W. Hibbard came to the area with a field party from the University of Kansas.9 Hibbard returned to Meade County many times over the years to study its geological history, and it is Hibbard who will be the focus of this paper.

 Claude W. Hibbard

Known from his letters as "Hibbie," Claude Hibbard was born on March 21, 1905, in Toronto, Kansas. He grew up on a farm, where he hunted and trapped and thus learned to study animals and their habits. In a letter to Professor W.G. Kühne dated September 20, 1961, Hibbard wrote, "As a boy I always wanted to hunt large game in Africa…"10 (Kühne was a paleontologist who founded the professorship and the Institut für Paläontologie at the Freie Universität Berlin).11 Hibbard attended the University of Kansas and earned his B.A. and M.A. degrees from there in 1933 and 1934, respectively. From 1934 to 1935, Hibbard worked with the U.S. National Park Service in Kentucky as a wildlife biologist,12 then, from 1935 to 1946, he served as assistant curator of vertebrate paleontology at the University of Kansas.13 He earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree in zoology in 1941 from the University of Michigan. While working on his doctorate and until 1946, Hibbard taught zoology, was in charge of field work, and served at the Museum of Natural History at the University of Kansas.14

Hibbard's first fieldwork led him to Meade County to investigate a report of a discovery of fossil mastodon bones. Hibbard used underwater screening to recover bones of small mammals, a technique he had first stumbled upon in 1928 while accompanying a field party led by H.T. Martin to Edson Quarry in northwest Kansas. Martin was the previous curator of vertebrate fossils at the Museum of Vertebrate Paleontology at the University of Kansas. Hibbard was the cook for Martin's field party, although he was also very interested in the fieldwork. In his letter to Kühne, Hibbard described his discovery of a new washing technique at Edson Quarry:

"The next day I finished dishes and camp work and rushed to the quarry to find for myself a rhino and camel. I was greeted by Martin with a pair of tweezers and told to carefully go over the quarry dump of 1926 and to pick up every piece of small bone. I worked about 1 1/2 hours that forenoon and 2 1/2 in the afternoon. There was no shade; one crawled around in the hot sand on his knees or lay on his belly picking up vertebrae, etc. By this time I was well acquainted with the rancher, so I asked him if he had any old pieces of screen wire. This is used on doors and windows to keep insects out of the house. He said he did and I asked him to bring 3 or 4 large pieces the next morning. I said nothing to anyone about my idea."

 Hibbard went on to say that he made the wire into baskets and then filled burlap bags with sand potentially containing fossils and went to a buffalo wallow to wash the bones out.

"I placed a shovel full of fine sand containing the fossils in the basket-like structures and set them in the water in the buffalo wallow. I then lifted and lowered the screen in the water. All of the fine sand passed through the screen leaving chiefly fossil bone. These were vertebrae and bones of salamander, frog, toad, bird, and rodent jaws. That afternoon I got enough small fossils to fill a kitchen match box (2 1/2 by 2 by 5 inches in size). When Martin and the students returned from the quarry that evening, I had supper on time and had my whole summer laid out, planning to wash for fossils… I fully realized at that time that 50% or more of a fauna went into a quarry dump and vowed I would collect small fossils if I could ever get the chance."15

Although not the first to use the technique, Hibbard made it popular. The method worked so well that Hibbard came to Meade County for 39 consecutive years, where he gathered previously unknown fossil histories about many vertebrates.16

In 1936, Jerry D. Golliher alerted Hibbard to an old bone quarry on the Big Springs Ranch and arranged for Hibbard to meet a gentleman living on the ranch. This man told Hibbard that Cragin had stayed at the ranch and searched for bones.17 From a letter written to Sanders Bros. Construction Co. dated May 16, 1939, it can be deduced that Hibbard gathered fossils from the Big Springs Ranch in 1936 and 1937. He wrote to ask permission to continue working on the Ranch.18 Hibbard named the site on Big Springs Ranch "Cragin Quarry" in honor of the man who had previously dug there.19

In 1946, Hibbard left Kansas to accept a position at the University of Michigan.20 Here, he became curator of the Museum of Vertebrate Paleontology. Although he was in Michigan, Hibbard continued to return to Kansas. In a Guidebook sponsored by The Kansas Geological Survey, Charles K. Bayne writes, "Since 1936, Hibbard spent most of the summers with field parties either from the University of Kansas or with parties from the University of Michigan studying the fossils in Meade County and the surrounding areas."21

Under Hibbard's direction, field parties studied the fossils in Meade County to learn more about the local faunas (animals of a particular habitat and time period) that lived there in the past. The location of southwest Kansas in the Great Plains was prime, Hibbard said, for recording the shifts in distribution of species.22 This was in part because the Great Plains was not influenced by winds off the Pacific Ocean, and air masses from the north and south could flow with little difficulty over the Plains. Hibbard wrote, "Thus, from the successive faunal differences in a local area, it is entirely possible to infer climatic changes over a large part of the continent."23

Hibbard was a member of the University of Michigan faculty until his sudden death on October 9, 1973.24 During his life, Hibbard authored around 160 scientific publications. In a collection of papers put together to honor Hibbard, Gerald R. Smith, Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan and Curator Emeritus of Fishes for the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology,25 wrote of Hibbard, "He was an intellectually demanding person, deeply committed to the study of life of the past. His influential philosophy combined the pragmatism of a Kansas farmer with the scholarly curiosity of the great naturalists of the last century."26

 

Geological History according to Hibbard

Hibbard used the animal remains and Pleistocene deposits he found in Meade County to formulate hypotheses of past climates in the area.27 Bayne writes, "The climatic changes are inferred from comparison of the components of the fauna with climatic requirements of living forms or, in the case of extinct forms, by their association with forms still living."28 For example, Hibbard studied the giant land tortoise, a cold-blooded animal. Hibbard assumed that the giant land tortoise of the past lived in similar climates as that of its tropical and subtropical relatives of today.29 He wrote, "It is not logical to assume that these large land tortoises lived in an environment where they became torpid from cold and dotted the landscape as boulders through a long cold season."30 Thus, wherever the presence of the giant land tortoise was discovered, Hibbard posited that a subtropical climate existed in the High Plains.31  

From his findings, Hibbard formulated conclusions about the past history of  Meade County. In an essay believed to be written by Hibbard entitled, "An Outline of the Geological History of Meade County," his views of the past are outlined. According to Hibbard, water covered Meade County many times in the past. Between 275 million and 220 million years ago, a shallow sea covered the area, he said, and rocks were deposited, as well as salt and gypsum. Sink holes and basins developed as a result. The last water to cover the area was said to have invaded from the Gulf 130 million years ago, withdrawing about 70 million years ago. Although rocks from this age are not exposed in Meade County, they may be found in Clark County.32

 Lower Pliocene

Between 11 million and 9.5 million years ago, the Lower Pliocene deposits were laid down.33 Climate was subtropical, being moist subhumid and with cool summers.34 A fault in the Earth's crust developed, running from north of Fowler and extending south to the Cimarron River.35 According to Bayne, faulting in the area was perhaps a result of sink holes.36 Today, Crooked Creek runs more or less along this fault. Over time, the beds west of the fault dropped to a depth of more than 300 feet. This formed a basin where gravel, silt, clay, and sand were deposited and where most of the fossils recovered from Meade County have been found.37

 Middle Pliocene

During the Middle Pliocene, between 9 million and 5 million years ago, Hibbard wrote that deposits were laid down near Wolf Canyon on the XIT Ranch in the southwest part of the county. 38 A small decrease in moisture characterized this time. At the end of the Middle Pliocene, the climate changed from semiarid to arid.39

Hibbard stated that the giant land tortoise, as well as the crocodile and alligator are the best indicators of temperature in a region,40 with this period characterized by a subtropical climate.41

 Upper Pliocene

Between 5 million and 1.8 million years ago, deposits from the Upper Pliocene were laid down. These have come to be known as the Rexroad Formation and can be found west of Meade along Highway 54, on Big Springs Ranch, at the pastures of H.C. Bender, Wendell Fox, and Guy Fox, and the XIT Ranch. Hibbard wrote, "These deposits in Meade County have yielded the largest association of mollusks, fishes, amphibians, turtles, lizards, snakes, birds, and mammals of this age known from any place in the world."42 Fossils that have been found include giant land turtles, turkeys, parrots, mastodons, horses, and camels. In the Benders fauna, of the Rexroad formation, there are 35 kinds of snails and 2 fishes.43

Hibbard wrote frequently to Jack and Frankie Sanders of Big Springs Ranch. His letters contain information from his field work on the Ranch and elsewhere as well as personal notes and greetings. Copies of Hibbard's letters may be seen at the Meade County Historical Museum.

An increase in moisture marked the beginning of the Upper Pliocene. Again, basing his estimations on the remains of large tortoises, Hibbard stated that a more favorable climate existed where temperatures did not reach below freezing.44 After this came an arid climate, and a calcium carbonate (caliche) bed developed. Following this, the climate again shifted to subhumid.45

Pleistocene

Hibbard was also interested in the Pleistocene (Ice Age), the period after the Pliocene, which some geologists believe spanned from 1.8 million to 6,000 years ago. This period involved cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) stages.46 According to Hibbard, ice accumulated east of the Rocky Mountains and pushed southward before eventually melting as the climate again warmed. This cycle of cooling occurred four times. The stages of the Pleistocene are: Nebraskan (1st glacial), Aftonian (1st Interglacial), Kansan (2nd glacial), Yarmouth (2nd Interglacial), Illinoian (3rd glacial), Sangamon (3rd Interglacial), and Wisconsin (4th glacial). Warming temperatures brought each subsequent Interglacial period, a time during which Hibbard postulated that a subtropical climate existed in Meade County with winter temperatures never dipping below freezing.47 Barry Miller, who taught paleontology and geology at Kent State University,48 suggests that these intervals can be seen in Meade County and the surrounding area.49 Bayne states: "The fossil assemblages in Meade County indicate marked climatic changes during the Pleistocene that included both wetter and dryer periods than at present."50 What follows are Hibbard's postulations regarding each of the stages of the Pleistocene.

 Nebraskan (glacial)

Hibbard wrote, "Based on past interpretations of glacial climates and faunas, there is not a single local fauna that can be taken as an example of one that lived at the time of maximum glacial advance during the Nebraskan."51 However, Hibbard did indicate that this first glacial stage would have had less severe climates than the glacial stages that came later.52 

Aftonian (interglacial)

Giant land tortoises have been unearthed in Meade County dating back to the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene. For example, Hibbard wrote that remains of a Giant Land Turtle were discovered from the Meade County State Park from the 1st Interglacial (Aftonian) stage.53 Wherever remains of the giant land tortoise were found, Hibbard postulated that warmer winter temperatures existed, correlating with each Interglacial period.54

 Kansan (glacial)

During the 2nd glacial (Kansan) period, volcanic ash, known as Pearlette ash, covered the area.55 According to Cragin, Pearlette ash got its name from an old post office in Meade County located at NW sec. 27, T30S, R27W.56 In the county, the mollusks and vertebrates from this time represent a cool fauna.57 According to Hibbard, the Cudahy fauna provides good evidence of climatic conditions during the end of the Kansan period.58 This fauna includes 28 species of mammals.59 Hibbard wrote, "The Cudahy fauna indicates a more moist condition with much cooler summers in southwestern Kansas, than now occurs in that region."60

 Yarmouth (interglacial)

During the second interglacial (Yarmouth) stage, sand and silt were distributed and deposited, forming a broad plain. Wind, seasonal streams, storms, and flash floods could have been responsible for moving the sediment. Hibbard believed the Borchers local fauna to come from this time. The remains of another large tortoise were found above the Pearlette ash, indicating a subtropical climate.61 Also included in this fauna are 25 species of mammals and 11 species of snakes.62 Hibbard suggests that this fauna implies a warm-temperate, dry subhumid climate.63 Contradicting Hibbard's earlier conclusion, Bayne wrote in 1976, "For many years the Borchers fauna was assigned a Yarmouthian age; however, fission-track dating of the ash below the Borchers fauna indicated that the Borchers fauna was much older."64 According to Bayne, it is from the Nebraskan stage.65

Also during the Yarmouth stage, a layer of calcium carbonate (caliche) developed near ground surface. Erosion may have occurred at the end of the stage. The Butler Spring and Cragin Quarry local faunas have both been collected from areas of erosion.66 Hibbard and Dwight W. Taylor also wrote that during late Yarmouth, early Illinoian, Crooked Creek came into existence as a result of movement along the Crooked Creek fault.67 Crooked Creek flowed along the course of Skunk Arroyo into the Cimarron River, although sinkhole collapse caused the stream to reverse and follow a course to the southeast, like it does today. The southwestward course became a minor tributary known as Skunk Arroyo.68

After this came another period of cooler temperatures during the Illinoian, or third glacial, stage. In Meade County, the cooling effect would have been most noticeable during the summer. Remains of mollusks, fishes, amphibians, and mammals have been uncovered at Butler Spring,69 after approximately 750 pounds of matrix were sorted through.70 Evidence that an ancient stream existed in the habitat of the Butler Spring local fauna is given by Hibbard and Taylor. First, the sand where the fossils were found was well sorted. Bones found appeared to have been carried a distance. Finally, most fossils were of aquatic species. Although Hibbard and Taylor claimed that the size of the stream could be debated, because of the fish fossils found, it may have been big enough to be known as a small river.71 Miller suggests the river's current was slow to moderate and that it was several feet deep.72 The river would have been larger than the Cimarron River and Crooked Creek,73 and its presence implies a greater rainfall than that of today.74

The Mount Scott local fauna was collected from the Big Springs Ranch.75 Hibbard and a field party from the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology opened a quarry two miles upstream from Mount Scott in 1953.76 Miller suggests that this local fauna lived in the later part of the Illinoian stage when the climate was already becoming warmer.77 This assumption is based off of the finding of species largely northern or northeastern.78 During the summers of 1953, 1957, and 1960, matrix totaling five tons was removed from this site. Later, in 1959 and 1960, another site was opened near Mount Scott. Later in 1960, two other localities were found.79 Around 63 species make up the Mount Scott local fauna, the majority of which are aquatic.80 The Mount Scott local fauna habitat probably contained a permanent pond or small lake, a perennial stream, a temporary water situation, an upland meadow, and a marsh-woodland.81 Evidence that a stream existed comes from the many fish that are part of the Mount Scott local fauna.82

 Sangamon (interglacial)

Remains found during the Sangamon, or third interglacial period, show that the Cragin Quarry local fauna and Jinglebob local fauna come from this time period, with the Cragin Quarry local fauna the older of the two.83 Hibbard and Taylor state that fossil evidence suggests an artesian spring existed at Cragin Quarry similar to those for which Big Springs Ranch was named. At Cragin Quarry, Hibbard found another large, thick-shelled tortoise, from which he inferred subtropical conditions in the area.84

Caliche again formed during the middle part of the Sangamon period. Cragin Quarry and Butler Spring both contained beds 12 to 18 inches thick.85 What had been a warm, semiarid climate (as implied by the local fauna at Cragin Quarry), changed to a more humid climate.86 It was also more moist.87 This new environment is inferred from the Jinglebob local fauna,88 which got its name from the Jinglebob pasture on the XI Ranch where the fauna was found. Hibbard wrote, "The pasture got its name from the 'mark' of the first range cattle to be grazed in this area."89 The mollusks and vertebrates found here were taken from near Shorts Creek, also known as Lone Tree Arroyo.90 Movement along the Crooked Creek fault may have caused the deposition of sediment at Jinglebob during a time when erosion was happening in large parts of the area.91

In 1947, Francis Cochran, then foreman of the XI Ranch, told Hibbard about an elephant skull that had been found in the bed of Shorts Creek (Lone Tree Arroyo). Shorts Creek ran through the Jinglebob pasture. Charley Oates, who was a rider for the XI Ranch, had discovered the skull. On July 28, 1947, Hibbard removed the elephant skull from the pasture. Farther upstream, Hibbard found part of a skull of a large short-faced bear. Later, in 1948 and 1949, more bones from the bear, as well as a large sloth, were found. In 1951, a field party from the Museum of Paleontology of the University of Michigan studied the deposit, although rain hampered its efforts.92 Fossils found included reptiles, amphibians, fishes, mollusks, and mammals.93 Pine Hibbard and Taylor wrote, "The chief significance of the Jinglebob local fauna lies in its environmental implications. The assemblage not only suggests a climate unlike any of those of the Great Plains today, but unlike any climate implied by other Pleistocene faunas of the Great Plains."95 A milder winter would have been characteristic of this time.96 Hibbard posited that the area had stream valleys with savanna-like vegetation of trees and shrubs, pools along the valley floor, and permanent streams. Some parts would have been marshy, with others being meadows of tall grass.97

 Wisconsin (glacial)

The youngest fauna studied in Meade County comes from the Jones Ranch. A local resident guided Hibbard and his field party to a fossil site here in 1940. A variety of vertebrates and mollusks were found.98 These fossils were found in the Vanhem formation. According to Hibbard and Taylor, inferences about the environment suggest that these fauna came from the Wisconsin age, otherwise known as the 4th glacial period. Summer temperatures would have been much cooler, as indicated by the presence of what are now species living to the north.99

 Conclusion

As has been seen, Meade County is a county rich in geological history. This is due largely to the work of Claude Hibbard, who performed much work and study in southwest Kansas, specifically relating to the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Hibbard's findings on the geological history of the county have been summarized above in an attempt to better understand the views of the man who spent many years washing for fossils in Meade County.

 Endnotes

1. Claude W. Hibbard and Dwight W. Taylor. Two Late Pleistocene Faunas From Southwestern Kansas (Ann Arbor: Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan; Vol. XVI, No. 1, pp. 1-223, 1960) 25.

2. Mary Donahue. "Teton range peak names." 21 March 2010. 25 June 2010 < http://faculty.deanza.edu/donahuemary/stories/storyReader$2802>.

3. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 25.

4. "Washburn University." Mabee Library Archives Index. N.d. 1 July 2010 <http://www.washburn.edu/mabee/special_collections/archives.txt>.

5. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 25.

6. "Quiz." Oread; An Official Employee Publication From the Office of University Relations. The University of Kansas Office of University Relations. 2001. 1 July 2010 <http://www.oread.ku.edu/Oread05/Jul18/quiz.html>.

7. Charles K. Bayne. "Early and Medial Pleistocene Faunas of Meade County, Kansas," Guidebook; 24th Annual Meeting; Midwestern Friends of the Pleistocene (Lawrence: The Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, 1976) 4.

8. "The First Annual College of Natural Sciences & Mathematics Awards Celebration." University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2005. 1 July 2010 <http://www.nsm.umass.edu/files/pdf/alumni/events/2005AwardsProgram.pdf>.

9. Bayne, 5.

10. Letter to Professor W.G. Kühne, September 20, 1961.

11. Thomas Martin & Bernard Krebs. "Guimarota - A Jurassic Ecosystem." 2010. 30 June 2010 < http://www.pfeil-verlag.de/07pala/d2_80d.html>.

12. G.R. Smith. "Preface," Studies on Cenozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy, ed. G.R. Smith and N.E. Friedland (Ann Arbor: Litho Crafters, Inc, 1975) v.

13. David Burnham. "Claude W. Hibbard (1905-1973)." Division of Vertebrate Paleontology. The University of Kansas Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center. 16 June 2010 <http://www.nhm.ku.edu/paleontology/hibbard.htm>.

14. Smith, v.

15. Letter to Professor W.G. Kühne, September 20, 1961. (Smith, 135-138).

16. Burnham.

17. Claude W. Hibbard. The Jinglebob Interglacial (Sangamon?) Fauna from Kansas and its Climatic Significance (Ann Arbor: Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan; Vol. XII, No. 10, pp. 179-228, 1955) 189.

18. Letter to Sanders Bros. Construction Co., Sante Fe, New Mexico, May 16, 1939.

19. Hibbard, The Jinglebob, 189.

20. Burnham.

21. Charles K. Bayne. "Early and Medial Pleistocene Faunas of Meade County, Kansas," Guidebook; 24th Annual Meeting; Midwestern Friends of the Pleistocene (Lawrence: The Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, 1976) 1.

22. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 16.

23. Ibid., 17.

24. Smith, v.

25. Phil Pochoda. "Guide to Great Lakes Fishes." The University of Michigan Press. 30 June 2010 <http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=1132378>.

26. Smith, v.

27. Bayne, 6.

28. Ibid., 10.

29. Claude W. Hibbard. An Interpretation of Pliocene and Pleistocene Climates in North America, (62nd annual report, Michigan Academy of Science, 1960) 6.

30. Ibid., 9.

31. Ibid., 14.

32. An Outline of the Geological History of Meade County (n.d.).

33. Ibid.

34. C. Lavett Smith, " Fishes and Climates; Fossil fish distribution indicates past environmental changes," Natural History; Incorporating Nature Magazine Feb. 1964: 34-39.

35. An Outline

36. Bayne, 2.

37. An Outline

38. Ibid.

39. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 14.

40. Ibid., 10.

41. Ibid., 14.

42. An Outline

43. Ibid.

44. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 16.

45. Ibid, 25.

46. Bayne, 6.

47. An Outline

48. "Geology Alumni Page." Kent State University Department of Geology. N.d. 30 June 2010 < http://www.personal.kent.edu/~dwaugh/geoalum/photos.html>.

49. Barry B. Miller. "Five Illinoian Molluscan Faunas from the Southern Great Plains," Malacologia 1966, 175.

50. Bayne, 10.

51. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 18.

52. Ibid., 19.

53. An Outline

54. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 19.

55. Ibid.

56. Bayne, 36.

57. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 19.

58. Ibid., 21.

59. Bayne, 20.

60. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 20.

61. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 20.

62. Bayne, 16.

63. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 20.

64. Bayne, 20.

65. Ibid.

66. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 20.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid., 21.

69. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 21.

70. Miller, 189.

71. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 48.

72. Miller, 189.

73. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 55.

74. Ibid., 51.

75. Miller, 176.

76. Ibid., 189.

77. Ibid., 177.

78. Ibid., 206.

79. Ibid., 190.

80. Ibid., 210.

81. Ibid., 208.

82. Ibid., 209.

83. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 32.

84. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 22.

85. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 21.

86. Ibid.

87. Hibbard, An Interpretation, 23.

88. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 22.

89. Hibbard, The Jinglebob, 194.

90. Ibid.

91. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 22.

92. Hibbard, The Jinglebob, 180.

93. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 58.

94. Ibid., 24.

95. Ibid., 62.

96. Hibbard, The Jinglebob, 202.

97. Ibid., 203.

98. Hibbard and Taylor, Two Late, 64.

99. Ibid., 66.

 

Works Cited

 Bayne, Charles K. "Guidebook; 24th Annual Meeting; Midwestern Friends of the Pleistocene." Kansas Geological Survey, The University of Kansas, April, 1976.

 Burnham, David. "Claude W. Hibbard (1905-1973)." Division of Vertebrate Paleontology. The University of Kansas Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center. Retrieved 16 June 2010 from <http://www.nhm.ku.edu/paleontology/hibbard.htm>.

Donahue, Mary. "Teton range peak names." 21 March 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010 from < http://faculty.deanza.edu/donahuemary/stories/storyReader$2802>.

"The First Annual College of Natural Sciences & Mathematics Awards Celebration." University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2010 from <http://www.nsm.umass.edu/files/pdf/alumni/events/2005AwardsProgram.pdf>.

"Geology Alumni Page." Kent State University Department of Geology. Retrieved 30 June 2010 from < http://www.personal.kent.edu/~dwaugh/geoalum/photos.html>.

Hibbard, Claude W. "The Jinglebob Interglacial (Sangamon?) Fauna From Kansas and Its Climatic Significance." Vol. XII, No. 10, pp. 179-228. 1955.

Hibbard, Claude. "An Outline of the Geological History of Meade County."

Hibbard, Claude W. "The President's Address; An Interpretation of Pliocene and Pleistocene Climates in North America." 1960.

Hibbard, Claude W. "Vertebrate Fossils From the Meade Formation of Southwestern Kansas." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters. Vol. XLI, 1956. 

Hibbard, Claude W. and Dwight W. Taylor. "Two Late Pleistocene Faunas From Southwestern Kansas." Vol. XVI, No. 1, pp. 1-223. 1960.

Martin, Thomas & Bernard Krebs. "Guimarota - A Jurassic Ecosystem." 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010 from < http://www.pfeil-verlag.de/07pala/d2_80d.html>.

Miller, Barry B. "Five Illinoian Molluscan Faunas From the Southern Great Plains." Malacologia Vo. 4, No. 1, p 173-260, 1966.

Pochoda, Phil. "Guide to Great Lakes Fishes." The University of Michigan Press. Retrieved 30 June 2010 from <http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=1132378>.

"Quiz." Oread; An Official Employee Publication From the Office of University Relations. The University of Kansas Office of University Relations. 2001. Retrieved 1 July 2010 from <http://www.oread.ku.edu/Oread05/Jul18/quiz.html>.

Smith, C. Lavett. "Fishes and Climates; Fossil fish distribution indicates past environmental changes." pp. 34-39. Natural History; Incorporating Nature Magazine. February 1964.

Smith, G.R. and N.E. Friedland. "Studies on Cenozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy." Claude W. Hibbard Memorial Volume 3, 1975.

"Washburn University." Mabee Library Archives Index. Retrieved 1 July 2010 from <http://www.washburn.edu/mabee/special_collections/archives.txt>.

Woodburne, Michael O. "Upper Pliocene Geology and Vertebrate Paleontology of Part of the Meade Basin, Kansas." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters. Vol. XLVI, 1961.

 

 

 

 

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